Doctor of Economics from Peking University. He worked for 20 years in the General Administration of Customs and the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation of China, and was one of the first permanent observers to the WTO in the 1980's. In the early 1990's, he was transferred to the U.S. Division of the U.S. Department of the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation in connection with the U.S.-China trade negotiations, where he participated in both multilateral and bilateral trade negotiations. He served as Customs Attaché and Third Secretary at the Permanent Mission of China to the United Nations in Geneva, and as Economic and Commercial Counselor at the Consulate General in Vancouver, Canada. He has served as the Executive Director of the Center for the Future of China Studies at Peking University and as a researcher at the China Center for Social Development Studies. He was the founding director of the Worldwatch Institute in Shanghai. He was the National Vice President of the Swiss Chamber of Commerce in China and a member of the Advisory Council of the European Union Chamber of Commerce in China (EUCCC) for two terms. He has served as Vice President of Tyco Electronics, BV, SGS and Chinese multinational companies. He is the author of "Review of the Effectiveness of China's Trade Policy before WTO Accession".